Ploughing and subsoiling，The most mainstream farming method in rural areas is rotary tillage. The tillage depth of rotary tillage operation is shallow, generally only 12-16 cm deep. The use of rotary tiller for many years is not good for the soil and is not conducive to the growth of crops. For ploughing and subsoiling, the ploughing depth is relatively deep. The depth of ploughing is generally 18-22 cm, and the depth of subsoiling is generally 30-40 cm, especially subsoiling, which can break the hard plow bottom and improve the structure of the soil plow layer. , to enhance soil water storage and moisture retention capacity and drought resistance and drainage capacity.
Farm land operations are mainly ploughing, with few rotary tillage operations. In the 1990s, the farms had vigorously promoted subsoil technology. Now the level of agricultural mechanization in rural areas is at most the level of the mid-to-late 1990s, and Far behind the farm in terms of farming concepts. The experience of promoting subsoiling technology in farms has proved that deep loosening of land is beneficial to the growth of crops, and it is one of the important means to improve crop yield, which is worth vigorously promoting.
The subsoiling operation is a heavy-duty operation, which requires a high-horsepower four-wheel drive tractor to pull the machinery for farming, which is one of the reasons why high-horsepower four-wheel drive vehicles have become popular in the market in recent years. The deep loosening operation does not disrupt the original soil structure, but only loosens the deep soil, only loosens the soil without turning the soil, with the purpose of breaking the bottom of the plow and loosening the soil, which is equivalent to “relaxing the tendons and activating the network” for the farmland, and the soil after deep loosening Conducive to crop growth, increase crop yield, and increase soil fertility.
The benefits of deep loosening are mainly manifested in:
- Can deepen the plough layer, break the plough bottom layer, increase the thickness of the plough layer, improve the soil structure, make the soil loose and ventilated, and improve the quality of the arable land.
- Enhance the speed and quantity of rainwater infiltration, improve the soil water storage capacity, promote the root system of crops, and improve the drought resistance and lodging resistance of crops. The experimental comparison shows that the water storage capacity per mu of arable land can reach more than 10 cubic meters. , the soil water storage capacity is 2 times that of shallow tillage, which can increase the water permeability of different types of soil by 5-7 times. Can promote crop yield 40-70 kg.
- Deep loosening does not turn the soil layer, so that most of the stubble, straw and weeds are covered on the surface, which is not only conducive to maintaining moisture, reducing wind erosion, but also absorbing more rainwater and delaying the generation of runoff. Weakening the runoff intensity, alleviating the erosion of the soil by surface runoff, reducing soil erosion, and effectively protecting the soil.
- After the soil is deeply loosened, the dissolving capacity of fertilizer can be increased, the volatilization and loss of chemical fertilizer can be reduced, and the utilization rate of fertilizer can be improved.
- After subsoiling, the times of rotary tillage can be reduced (generally one time of rotary tillage), and the cost can be reduced.
The reason for deep loosening of the land lies in the implementation of agricultural machinery deep loosening and soil preparation, which can break the hard plough bottom layer, deepen the plough layer, reduce soil bulk density and improve soil permeability, thereby enhancing soil water storage and moisture retention and drought and waterlogging resistance capabilities. Conducive to crop growth and development and increase yield.
Deep loosening operations have high requirements on the power and adhesion of the tractor. The 5-row subsoiler should generally be equipped with a tractor of more than 90 horsepower, and the four-wheel drive traction effect is better.
Plowing is the process of turning the soil over with a tractor driven plow. Compared with subsoiling operations, ploughing belongs to shallow soil cultivation, and the depth generally does not exceed 18-22 cm. The advantages of ploughing are mainly manifested in that turning over and drying the soil can discharge toxic gases in the soil; turning the eggs and bacteria into the deep soil to kill; The soil preparation and sowing of stubble crops; the cultivated land after ploughing is convenient for ridge operation, and it can also improve the water storage capacity, etc.